Driver & Vehicle Licensing Agency - responsible for regulating driving licences.


Refers to driving in an environmentally friendly manner, e.g. Block changing gears.
EDP. Explanation, Demonstration, Practice.
Teaching Method A skill must first be explained verbally, then an example shown, possibly by demonstration, and finally practice to assess if understanding has been achieved. Note that the demonstration does not necessarily mean you actually doing it; often the use of diagrams or other material will be sufficient. I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand
External Any outside influence on a pupil's ability to pay attention - such as traffic flow, noise, weather conditions etc. 


An exchange between the pupil and instructor for the latter to ascertain as to whether satisfactory understanding and progress is taking place, best carried out throughout the lesson and summarized at the end of a period of training.

Four-stroke engine cycle

Induction - compression - ignition/power - exhaust. This is the basic cycle that your engine goes through to provide the power needed to turn the wheels.1.Induction This is when the mixture of air and fuel is sucked into the cylinder through the inlet valves2.Compression The mixture of air and fuel is squeezed to make it provide a bigger bang3.Ignition this is when the fuel is ignited to create the bang which then forces the cylinder down to create the power needed to turn the wheels4.Exhaust the gases created by the burning of the fuel are pushed out through the outlet valves and the cycle begins again.In simple terms you could remember this as: SUCK SQUEEZE – BANG – BLOW

Four-wheel drive

It may sound obvious, but on a two-wheel drive system the power or drive is only transferred directly from the engine to two wheels. This is either the two front wheels - front wheel driveor the two rear wheels - rear wheel driveThe main advantage of having four-wheel drive is the increased traction, or grip, particularly on loose or slippery surfaces. Because the improved grip reduces the possibility of a vehicle's wheel sliding in some circumstances, it can also be stated that the main advantage of four-wheel drive is improved road holding


A common term used for the Accelerator pedal as in "more gas" or "less gas" or "gas pedal"

Gears for going Brakes for slowing.

A way of remembering to select a gear only when you are sure that it can be used, e.g. Using the brakes efficiently to slow down on approach to junctions only choosing an appropriate gear when a decision has been made to continue.

Learning by understanding. (Pre-knowledge - new knowledge - insight) Once a pupil is familiar with the basic principles of driving he must learn to apply them themselves in a number of different situations. Only if they understand the meaning of what has been taught is this possible.